I. What is perovanium ore: First, it is important that the perovskite in the photovoltaic field does not really have calcium titanate (Catio3) with titanium (Catio3), but is very close to the structure and titanate structure \”ABX3\” \”Structure (or\” 113 \”structure) of a series of compound materials. Under the ABX3 structure, a position needs to be organic cation, the most commonly used, the CH3NH3 +; B bit requires a metal cation, the mainstream is a lead ion PB2 + or tin ion SN2 +; X ion needs to be halogenic, can be used to iodine, chlorine, bromine . At present, the calcium titanium-titanium battery is mainly taken with a flexible device route. It is an essentially a thin film battery, so when I look at Zhangzhou, the color of the calcium-titanium component can be free to regulate, and then mainly used in the photovoltaic building and Distributed, after all, you can’t make black chloricon into an external facade, you can refer to the main purpose of the current players in the cadmium battery. Second. Perovanium-titanium-titanium-titanium: The main reason for the investment in calcium and titanium in these years is the efficiency and low cost. (1) Efficiency: In 2009, the structure of Yokohama University Miyama Group is almost 3.8% battery efficiency. In 2019, 25% of the plasma silicon was pursued. In 2022 this year, the perovskite laboratory has reached 29.8% ( Berlin Laboratory, and because the perovskite is a compound, the formulation can be constantly adjusted, which makes the band gap can not only close the perfect 1.34 EV (ie Xiaochley – Quiihe limits – 33.7% conversion efficiency), Different calcium titanium mine materials are superimposed or superimposed according to different wavelength incident light, thereby breaking through the Xhotley-Quiii, which is much more than 32% of the theoretical limit. (2) Cost: The raw material of the first perovanium ore is all over the ground. Although silicon is like it is, it is mainly simple to have a simple process, and the purity requires low (98%, comparison crystalicon 6N), Component production also does not have a thousand degree of high temperature (PERC, TOPCON), which is fully responsive. Moreover, the calcium titanium ore is strong, and the amount of material is low to the fingers. The perovskite layer only needs to achieve 300 ~ 500 nm thickness, good guy, 160 μm crystal silicon crying in the toilet, looking at the most advanced 120μm, think I still don’t want it. Moreover, theoretical process flow is much shorter than the crystal silicon, then once the upper and downstream integration is easy, everyone is integrated. Of course, the theoretical belief, according to I know, there is currently no supporting case, the calcium titanium mine buildings is still high, and the equipment needs imported. Third. Perovanium mine disadvantages: Ok, main advantages are finished, you can talk about the problem of big cake. The main disadvantages are also obvious: efficiency, durability, toxic, and then I recently read the article mentioned that there may be a mysterious power. (1) Efficiency: Why is the previous efficiency is the advantage, this is the shortcomings? At present, the highest efficiency of the perovskite is data under the laboratory scene. From the laboratory, there is still a long road, laboratory data and final finished component data have a long distance.Leave. At present, these so-called calcium titanium-titanium-based batteries that reach crystalline silicon efficiency, how small, maybe, it may be a thumb cover, then, simple pursuit efficiency, other aspects are very poor, such as attenuation, such as 1000 The hour can attenuate more than 10%. The essence of the PV field is the cost of electricity rather than a single efficiency. Therefore, it is usually too worried about a certain battery break. Many laboratory data is very distant, and more products that cannot be commercialized are more academic. value. At present, there is a relatively large commercial perovs and titanium-titanium component in the market, and the size can be done 1245mm x 635mm, but this size and crystal silicon 166 gap are relatively large, depending on the efficiency of the news, this is the June 2021 News, therefore, positive is completely unable to compete with crystalline silicon, and can only adjust various colors, adapt to BIPV. In addition, the perovskite needs to collect current using a transparent conductive oxide film, but the larger the type of material, the more light loss, this is the physical characteristics of the material, which means that the calcium titanium is not large, requires new materials Introduce. The summary is that the laboratory efficiency is high, but the efficiency and crystalline gap between commercialization is large. (2) Durability: Not durable is a huge defect in the calcium titanium ore. As the ionic crystal material, the perovskite structure is too flexible to unstabilize compared to the natural chemical machinery, the current crystalic silicon assembly is 25 years of quality, the standard is also attenuated by no more than 0.6%, but At present, the most advanced calcium titanium-titanium study has attenuated 1% in 2000, and the perovskite efficiency at this time is only 20.9%, and most of the calcium titanium-based batteries should be attenuated by about 10%, which is impossible. Commercially acceptable. And the final physics structure determines that the perovskite will be more affected by the Stabler-Wroni effect. In addition, the chemical properties of calcium titanium mine are also more active, which will corrode metal, and a large amount of metal in the assembly is very difficult. Of course, technology is continuously improved, and the future may be more durable in the future, but I don’t know how long it takes. (3) Toxicity: The front mentioned above, the B bit in the perovskite structure needs to use metal cations, lead ions are the best commercial prospects in the market, and they are used at the beginning, but lead Ions are poisonous as heavy metals. Of course, it can be replaced by tin ions, but this will lead to a straight line of efficiency, and the bid-privilete is more active, it is easy to oxidize to tetravalent, resulting in a decline in the efficiency of the entire component, that is, using Siki ions can cause components. Not durable. (4) Mysterious power: Finally, recent scientific research has found that perovskite has a specific defect named \”well trap state\”, which will trapped carriers like traps, resulting in light energy to convert to electricity. It can become thermal energy, affecting the efficiency of calcium titanium low battery. But the problem is currently unknown, don’t talk about how to solve it. This series of defects, especially for high efficiency, low and unbreakable, leading to the current commercial roads in the perovskite. 4. Is it destructive? In summary, the perovite laboratory efficiency limit isThe theoretical cost does have advantages, but the current structure and stability of defects also require technical breakthroughs. Secondly, the entire production segment equipment is too expensive. Several equipment I know is needed to import overseas, thieves, and short. It is probably more than 10 years of production distance to see the specific large-scale commercial production. Of course, the current calcium titanium ore combined with HJT in series may be a relatively close calcium-titanium mine energy to a large-scale commercialization. After all, it is supplemented by more defects to avoid positive battles but as a supplement to the crystal silicon battery. However, the current HJT is also launched. Of course, the second-level market story has already blown another wave, but the HJT investment cost of 450 million / gW in early 2022, compares 0.5 billion / gW rebuild or 250 million / GW new built TopCon, I thought about the technology and equipment of the current iteration, and then thought about the depreciation pressure after buying, it is really a big photovoltaic factory to try the pilot, but it is already available, it is already available. The mainstream of the factory may be more than 20%. At present, there is a special type of calcium titanium-titanium battery color adjustable, compared to another market, which is equipped with the other market, which is very conforming to the definition of destructive technology in innovative technology: product performance is lower than mature products in the mainstream market, but has some Other features, low prices, simpler performance, etc. At present, there are some primary companies in the industry, after all, BIPV is too small for the market for photovoltaic big plants, but in the future, if the perovskite is really revolutionary breakthrough, it is not necessary to subvert the entire market. At present, the perovskite is still not the destruction of the photovoltaic industry, but it is indeed an important development direction that needs attention in the future. After all, it is necessary to talk about commercialization for 10 years. Once the technology has breakthrough, it will be short into the moment. Distance, of course, it is also possible to break through 10 years. Is this the charm of technology?
Is the perovskite, is it a destruction of the photovoltaic industry?