International Energy Network – Photovoltaic daily report, the public is in the world!

Domestic headlines 1, Shandong Liaocheng 5.8GW scenery key project list list: 2.5GW Clear owners, Jingke won the list! On February 18th, Shandong Liaocheng Energy Development \”14th Five-Year Plan\” (Draft for Comment), clearly clearing the focus of the city, and the list of light construction projects. The photovoltaic items include affordable and marketization and a total of 37.24 million kilowatts; wind power projects include a total of 2.1 million kilowatts of affordable and active promotion; totaling a total of 58.24 million kilowatts. Among them, there are 25.374 million kilowatts of projects in the owners, and the rest of the owners are temporary. Jingke ranks first in 650,000 kilowatts, followed by 300,000 kilowatts in Shandong, 217,000 kilowatts of national energy groups were the top three owners. 2, subsidies 0.2 yuan / W The newly added photovoltaic network is 40 megawatts, and strives to fight 50 megawatts. During the \”14th Five-Year Plan\” period, the county new-added capacity is 100 megawatts. The document is clear. From January 1, 202, the residential roof photovoltaic project was completed during the construction of grid-connected power generation during December 31, 2023, and the roof is given to the roof of 0.2 yuan a one-time investment subsidy, and the number is not more than 2,000 yuan. . 3, Hubei Yichang 2025 new energy installed 3 million kilowatts! Vigorously develop clean energy, build clean energy, the people’s government of Yichang City, Hubei Province released the \”Energy Development of Yichang City\” 14th Five-Year Plan. \”Plan\” proposed, in 2025, the city’s new energy installed capacity reached 3 million kilowatts. During the \”Plan\”, \”14th Five-Year Plan\” period, Yichang City implemented 86 energy key projects, and the total investment of project estimates of 175.9 billion yuan, of which 47.03.998 billion yuan, and power grid enhanced projects 8.449 billion yuan. Vigorously develop clean energy to create clean energy. Steadily promote wind energy development. Develop photovoltaic power generation in an orderly manner. 4, Jiangsu Wuxi: Small distributed photovoltaic, non-independently occupied, no need to handle construction project planning permits, rural construction planning permits Recently, Wuxi Natural Resources and Planning Bureau issued \”About further improvement planning and approval management simplified simple project construction project planning Notice of the Opinions (Trial) \”of the license. \”Notice\” points out to improve the conditions of living conditions and enhance public space quality, meet urban update requirements, from the perspective of ensuring public interest, improve administrative service efficiency, and determine a batch of simple low-risk projects, premise the premise of meeting the management requirements of relevant authorities Next, there is no need to handle construction project planning licenses or rural construction planning licenses. This includes \”small distributed photovoltaic facilities\” non-independently occupied. \” 5, Gansu Jingyuan \u0026 AMP; Zhanjiang Wind Power Signing of 1.5 million kilowatts \”Source Network Direct Reserve\” Integration Project February 17 The project planned construction of 1.5 million kilowatts of wind power, photovoltaic new energy power generation project, supporting construction 330kV changeTwo and corresponding grid facilities, introducing energy storage system construction projects and transformer production plants as electricity loads, and configuring battery energy storage power stations. The project takes advantage of the rich scenery-rich ventilation in the silver area, and the power supply system with a wind is stored as the core, ease the pressure of electricity in silver. 6. Water-growing energy energy monthly signed 250MW of the county photovoltaic project on February 18, the water-promoting Industrial Energy Group signed \”Water Enterprise, Wu Xuan County\” distributed photovoltaic development investment construction project Cooperation Agreement, which will invest in 250MW of distributed photovoltaic projects in Wu Xuan County. In addition, the water-haired Industrial Energy Group will continue to invest in the construction of nearly 400MW of fishing light complementary projects, strive to create a number of demonstration projects that have a batch of outstanding style, hard-drying, and make more, more, more A good project is rooted in Wu Xuan, a result of flowering. 7, total investment of 6 billion yuan! Yusu semiconductor will invest 20GW single crystal rod sliced \u200b\u200bproject in Yunnan, February 19, Yunnan Province Qujing Semiconductor Co., Ltd. And Signal Ceremony was held in Yichun City, Jiangxi Province. Signing Site, Fujing City Deputy Mayor Wu Jing and Yuxi (Jiangxi) Semiconductor Co. 20GW single crystal rod slices and total investment of about 4 billion yuan of 100,000 tons of phosphate series project cooperation agreement. Overseas headlines 8, the Swiss Federal Committee refuses to enforce new housing installation solar facilities According to the Latest Subscription of the Swiss Federal Committee to (Legislative) consultation procedures, the federal government refuses to comply with the willingness of the Parliament, and enforce the new housing to install solar facilities. According to the federal government estimates, 2025 Winter Switzerland may have shortage of electricity. The arrangement of large-scale reducing carbon dioxide emissions and exiting nuclear power will further intensify this dilemma. Expanding renewable energy facilities construction is the current energy strategy of federal government, but whether the size and speed of the addition is enough. Some people even put forward returns, but the proposal has been vetoed 10 days ago. 9. South African green energy transformation can be created in 250,000 jobs in the Global War Council (GWEC) in 25 years. The post and bring more than 1000 million US dollars (about 15 million Range) to the South African economy. GWEC pointed out that the current South African energy system relies on coal, and its greenhouse gas emissions account for about 5% of the world, and South Africa is still working hard to maintain energy supply stability. Today, the hard-working bee will never have time to sorrow. Black

Publish a total of the total river, and the water surface is built!

A few days ago, Henan, Shanxi and other places have released the head leading, and the photovoltaic power station built within the river management scope was included in key investigation and remediation. The general river issued by Henan Province, \”Decision on the Clearing and Rehabilitation of River Taoism\” is required to comprehensively investigate the outstanding problems of hindering the flooding of the river, carry out centralized cleaning and remediation, and protect the river floven. The waterproof building including the photovoltaic power station is listed as the main investigation and remediation. The Decision of the General River Longli Order No. 01 of Shanxi Province \”clearly launched the decision of the special rectification of river Taoism\” \”clear, obstructing the\” Who of China \” Industrial and civil buildings such as photovoltaic power plants built within the scope are demolished or relocated by everyone. The photovoltaic power station must not affect the river floss reporter noted that the investigation and remediation of the photovoltaic power station in the main river in the two provinces in Shanxi mainly focused on the impact of the electric station on the flooding of the river. According to Lombard’s China Regional Solution Expert, Ma Jingtao, the photovoltaic power station within the river management ranges generally contains two categories. Although the construction land of a class of power stations is within the management of river, the ground properties are land. \”Suitably, some are construction along both sides of the edge of the river; although in the river, the component power plant is usually land, silt and shallow water, and the components are installed by concrete pile foundation and steel brackets.\” A type of power station is fully constructed in the river water, and the photovoltaic power station is directly mounted on the waters of the water by pile foundation bracket or plastic floating cylinder or the like. \”In the broader\” water-surface photovoltaic \”, Ma Ke Tao said that the industry does not have strict definition conditions, generally regarding the ministerial period of the photovoltaic power plant as a water-surface photovoltaic.\” And most of the waters is shallow water surface photovoltaic power station. On the ground, mountain photovoltaic is no essential difference in the installation method, still using a longer concrete pile, and installs the photovoltaic component to power generation using steel structural brackets. \”In the early years, most of the photovoltaic power plants built in the river management range is ‘pile foundation’, usually play a lot of concrete piles in the river. For river flovement, the water conservancy department has a detailed assessment plan for the tract of the river in fixed time. Once the pile foundation is over-secret, it will inevitably produce drainage problems, and the flow rate will bring risks to the river flovement. . Wu said Wu, in the early domestic water, the relevant person in charge of the development enterprise, pointed out that at the beginning of the construction of photovoltaic power station, the relevant competent department will systematically assess the power station, and the power generation project of the river flood will be strictly prohibited. 2021 In November, the Ministry of Water Resources has conducted public notification on the construction of the photovoltaic station in Shandong Province, the construction of the photovoltaic station. According to the notification, the photovoltaic array of photovoltaic arrays is located in the river role, illegally occupying the length of 3.4 kilometers, 1021 mu, The river flood and flood safety have a great impact. It has been demolished according to law. Compared with the \”pile foundation\” power station, Wu believes that the influence of the photovoltaic power station installed by \”floating\” is greatly reduced. \” Our company is doing the first river floating power stationAt the time, the depth communication with the water conservancy department and made detailed experiments and evaluation forecasts, and the floating power station will never hinder the flooding of the river. \”The effect of ecological environment can not be generally removed from flood control requirements, Wu pointed out that for the photovoltaic power station involving water in water, there is a more stringent requirement in ecological and environmental protection. Ma Jingtao told reporters that the environmental assessment of water surface photovoltaics, except for land planning, In addition to the conventional projects such as the compliance analysis, construction and production process of power planning, in some cases, in some cases special evaluation of the atmospheric environment, the water environmental impact, ecological impact, etc. \”For example, if it is a construction of a floating power station, The material of the floating body is not safe. There is no pollution on the water quality. The photovoltaic array is covered with water surface. The extent of water evaporation, transparency, and various trace elements will be included in the specifically considered scope of the previous environmental assessment. \”Wu emphasized that the water surface floating power station is more complicated due to construction and operational environments, and the corresponding impact assessment cannot be generalized. Wu said that the high-quality water floating power station will not only cause damage to the water body and the surrounding ecological environment, will also reduce the surface Evaporation, preventing eutrophication from water body, and the role of protecting water resources. \”In Singapore, the water surface of the drinking reservoir can build a floating photovoltaic power station, and after the power plant is built, the water quality of the reservoir is still in line with the safety standards of drinking water. \”But Wu also emphasized that China will highly pay attention to the protection area of \u200b\u200becological environment, and will strictly limit the construction of photovoltaic power plants. Comprehensive evaluation system has been treated, and many provinces in China have been released.\” The \”multiplied plan\” of the renewable energy development during the 14th Five-Year Plan. The relevant person in charge of China’s PV industry association pointed out that under the high speed, under the momentum of the multi-purpose machine, the emerging form of water surface photovoltaic needs to establish a corresponding standard system, standardize development In 2012, the State Housing and Construction Department and the State Administration of Quality Supervision, the General Administration of Quality Supervision and Inspection, were jointly issued the \”Design Specification for PV Power Station\”, standardized the site selection of photovoltaic power station, environmental protection and soil and soil and soil. Single, the reporter From the China Poetry Industry Association, as of now, the association level issued a total of \”high-density polyethylene buoy with water photovoltaic power generation system\” \”design specifications for water photovoltaic power generation system\” \”Floating photovoltaic power generation system acceptance specifications\” three water-surface photovoltaic related Standard. Among them, \”Design Specifications for Water Photovoltaic Power Generation\” make clearly stipulates the site selection, station area arrangement, water resources and environmental protection, requires environmental protection and flood control, irrigation, and irrigation of water photovoltaic power generation system. Assessment of vessel sailing, aquaculture, planting, etc.; The special waters should be considered, drainage facilities; water photovoltaic power generation systems should not damage the original water system of the water. \”Relatively speaking, the water floating power station is still a new thing, and the project landing is also mainly concentrated in the last 5 years. Industry still needs to continue to explore its ecological ringThe influence of the environment, establish a better evaluation system.\”Wu said. Extension reading water photovoltaic station refers to the photovoltaic power station established in water formed in the water pond (fish crab pond, etc.), small and medium lakes, reservoirs, water storage pools, and lakes formed in the collapse area. CurrentlyPiling and floating, existing water surface photovoltaic size, 3 meters, shallow water area, \”fixed piling + fixed stent\”, a small amount of \”fixed piling + tracking stent\”; deep water area floating (about 3-10Mi) is still in the demonstration stage, and the technical maturity is to be improved. It is an important development direction of future water photovoltaic. With the restriction of land resources, the decline in construction costs and the development of technology, water-surface photovoltaic promotes the development of global renewable energy developmentPlaying increasingly important roles, global installed capacity is also rapidly promoted.

Jiangxi Dexing City: “Photovoltaic Industry” is a village to revitalize “energy storage”

In recent years, the party committee and government of Zhangcun Township, Dexing City, adhere to the party building leading, based on the actual and solar resources of the wilderness, the advantages of the solar resources, the advantages of high resources, and the local conditions, and the rural residence is combined with new energy Vigorously introduce and develop the photovoltaic power industry project, enabling \”light\” and \”farm\” to collide out the flow of sparks, increasing the new development of the engine, further consolidating the outcome of the poverty attack, effectively promoting the revitalization of the country, let the poor people eat \”Sunshine\” \”The rice\” is also laid \”Sunshine Road\” for the village-level collective income, and has come out of a sustainable green development new road. Up to now, 4 of the village-level photovoltaic poverty alleviation power stations. From January to October 2021, the Power Generation Income of 400,000 PV Poverty Alleviation Power Station was about 400,000 yuan, and the income of Power Generation of PV Geotechnic Poverty Reduction was divided into 12 depressed villages, and each of the benefits of poverty poverty was 50,000 yuan. At the same time, the photovoltaic power generation project covers the 13 villages in the city (residential), directly driven nearly 100 laborers in the surrounding village to engage in fire prevention, weeding, cleaning photovoltaic board, etc. Employment issues have promoted farmers’ income and the same frequency resonance in the development of rural areas, achieving economic benefits and ecological benefits \”win-win\”.

Is the perovskite, is it a destruction of the photovoltaic industry?

I. What is perovanium ore: First, it is important that the perovskite in the photovoltaic field does not really have calcium titanate (Catio3) with titanium (Catio3), but is very close to the structure and titanate structure \”ABX3\” \”Structure (or\” 113 \”structure) of a series of compound materials. Under the ABX3 structure, a position needs to be organic cation, the most commonly used, the CH3NH3 +; B bit requires a metal cation, the mainstream is a lead ion PB2 + or tin ion SN2 +; X ion needs to be halogenic, can be used to iodine, chlorine, bromine . At present, the calcium titanium-titanium battery is mainly taken with a flexible device route. It is an essentially a thin film battery, so when I look at Zhangzhou, the color of the calcium-titanium component can be free to regulate, and then mainly used in the photovoltaic building and Distributed, after all, you can’t make black chloricon into an external facade, you can refer to the main purpose of the current players in the cadmium battery. Second. Perovanium-titanium-titanium-titanium: The main reason for the investment in calcium and titanium in these years is the efficiency and low cost. (1) Efficiency: In 2009, the structure of Yokohama University Miyama Group is almost 3.8% battery efficiency. In 2019, 25% of the plasma silicon was pursued. In 2022 this year, the perovskite laboratory has reached 29.8% ( Berlin Laboratory, and because the perovskite is a compound, the formulation can be constantly adjusted, which makes the band gap can not only close the perfect 1.34 EV (ie Xiaochley – Quiihe limits – 33.7% conversion efficiency), Different calcium titanium mine materials are superimposed or superimposed according to different wavelength incident light, thereby breaking through the Xhotley-Quiii, which is much more than 32% of the theoretical limit. (2) Cost: The raw material of the first perovanium ore is all over the ground. Although silicon is like it is, it is mainly simple to have a simple process, and the purity requires low (98%, comparison crystalicon 6N), Component production also does not have a thousand degree of high temperature (PERC, TOPCON), which is fully responsive. Moreover, the calcium titanium ore is strong, and the amount of material is low to the fingers. The perovskite layer only needs to achieve 300 ~ 500 nm thickness, good guy, 160 μm crystal silicon crying in the toilet, looking at the most advanced 120μm, think I still don’t want it. Moreover, theoretical process flow is much shorter than the crystal silicon, then once the upper and downstream integration is easy, everyone is integrated. Of course, the theoretical belief, according to I know, there is currently no supporting case, the calcium titanium mine buildings is still high, and the equipment needs imported. Third. Perovanium mine disadvantages: Ok, main advantages are finished, you can talk about the problem of big cake. The main disadvantages are also obvious: efficiency, durability, toxic, and then I recently read the article mentioned that there may be a mysterious power. (1) Efficiency: Why is the previous efficiency is the advantage, this is the shortcomings? At present, the highest efficiency of the perovskite is data under the laboratory scene. From the laboratory, there is still a long road, laboratory data and final finished component data have a long distance.Leave. At present, these so-called calcium titanium-titanium-based batteries that reach crystalline silicon efficiency, how small, maybe, it may be a thumb cover, then, simple pursuit efficiency, other aspects are very poor, such as attenuation, such as 1000 The hour can attenuate more than 10%. The essence of the PV field is the cost of electricity rather than a single efficiency. Therefore, it is usually too worried about a certain battery break. Many laboratory data is very distant, and more products that cannot be commercialized are more academic. value. At present, there is a relatively large commercial perovs and titanium-titanium component in the market, and the size can be done 1245mm x 635mm, but this size and crystal silicon 166 gap are relatively large, depending on the efficiency of the news, this is the June 2021 News, therefore, positive is completely unable to compete with crystalline silicon, and can only adjust various colors, adapt to BIPV. In addition, the perovskite needs to collect current using a transparent conductive oxide film, but the larger the type of material, the more light loss, this is the physical characteristics of the material, which means that the calcium titanium is not large, requires new materials Introduce. The summary is that the laboratory efficiency is high, but the efficiency and crystalline gap between commercialization is large. (2) Durability: Not durable is a huge defect in the calcium titanium ore. As the ionic crystal material, the perovskite structure is too flexible to unstabilize compared to the natural chemical machinery, the current crystalic silicon assembly is 25 years of quality, the standard is also attenuated by no more than 0.6%, but At present, the most advanced calcium titanium-titanium study has attenuated 1% in 2000, and the perovskite efficiency at this time is only 20.9%, and most of the calcium titanium-based batteries should be attenuated by about 10%, which is impossible. Commercially acceptable. And the final physics structure determines that the perovskite will be more affected by the Stabler-Wroni effect. In addition, the chemical properties of calcium titanium mine are also more active, which will corrode metal, and a large amount of metal in the assembly is very difficult. Of course, technology is continuously improved, and the future may be more durable in the future, but I don’t know how long it takes. (3) Toxicity: The front mentioned above, the B bit in the perovskite structure needs to use metal cations, lead ions are the best commercial prospects in the market, and they are used at the beginning, but lead Ions are poisonous as heavy metals. Of course, it can be replaced by tin ions, but this will lead to a straight line of efficiency, and the bid-privilete is more active, it is easy to oxidize to tetravalent, resulting in a decline in the efficiency of the entire component, that is, using Siki ions can cause components. Not durable. (4) Mysterious power: Finally, recent scientific research has found that perovskite has a specific defect named \”well trap state\”, which will trapped carriers like traps, resulting in light energy to convert to electricity. It can become thermal energy, affecting the efficiency of calcium titanium low battery. But the problem is currently unknown, don’t talk about how to solve it. This series of defects, especially for high efficiency, low and unbreakable, leading to the current commercial roads in the perovskite. 4. Is it destructive? In summary, the perovite laboratory efficiency limit isThe theoretical cost does have advantages, but the current structure and stability of defects also require technical breakthroughs. Secondly, the entire production segment equipment is too expensive. Several equipment I know is needed to import overseas, thieves, and short. It is probably more than 10 years of production distance to see the specific large-scale commercial production. Of course, the current calcium titanium ore combined with HJT in series may be a relatively close calcium-titanium mine energy to a large-scale commercialization. After all, it is supplemented by more defects to avoid positive battles but as a supplement to the crystal silicon battery. However, the current HJT is also launched. Of course, the second-level market story has already blown another wave, but the HJT investment cost of 450 million / gW in early 2022, compares 0.5 billion / gW rebuild or 250 million / GW new built TopCon, I thought about the technology and equipment of the current iteration, and then thought about the depreciation pressure after buying, it is really a big photovoltaic factory to try the pilot, but it is already available, it is already available. The mainstream of the factory may be more than 20%. At present, there is a special type of calcium titanium-titanium battery color adjustable, compared to another market, which is equipped with the other market, which is very conforming to the definition of destructive technology in innovative technology: product performance is lower than mature products in the mainstream market, but has some Other features, low prices, simpler performance, etc. At present, there are some primary companies in the industry, after all, BIPV is too small for the market for photovoltaic big plants, but in the future, if the perovskite is really revolutionary breakthrough, it is not necessary to subvert the entire market. At present, the perovskite is still not the destruction of the photovoltaic industry, but it is indeed an important development direction that needs attention in the future. After all, it is necessary to talk about commercialization for 10 years. Once the technology has breakthrough, it will be short into the moment. Distance, of course, it is also possible to break through 10 years. Is this the charm of technology?

2021 France deployed 2.68 GW solar energy

Last year, the solar energy accounted for more than 3% of French power demand, and as of the end of December, the solar power generation accumulated 13,067mw.In 2021, France deployed 2,687MW added solar capacity, which found a best record in terms of installed capacity.In contrast, the country’s installed capacity in 2020, 2018 and 2017 is 973MW, 883MW and 890MW, respectively.According to the latest data released by the French Renewable Energy Association (SER), the fourth quarter of 2021 is particularly active, with about 761MW new photovoltaic system smoothly and grid.As of the end of December, French photovoltaic machine has accumulated 13,067 mW.SER also reported that in 2021, French PV array power generation is close to 14.3TWH, an increase of 12.6% from the previous year.The new Aquitang area has the highest yield, which is 3.8TWH.This is followed by the Danani region and Provence – Alps – Blue Coast Region, 3TWH and 2.1TWH, respectively.In 2021, the solar energy accounted for 3% of the total power consumption, while 2020 accounts as 2.8%.The highest records of more than 5% were created during June to August 2021.

Brazil Ceara approves more than 2 GW Solar Project

The Brazilian Environmental State Council approved three solar photovoltaic projects last week with a total capacity of 2142 megawatts.One of the items is a 241.5 MW Quixere solar power plant proposed by Enel Green Power Brasil Particles Ltda.As part of it, Quixere City will install five deputy parks on 1102 hectares (272369 acres).The second and third programs approved at the Special Session of last Thursday (February 17) were the 1584 MW Jamea Leopards from Uruque Jaguaretama Energias RenovAveis Ltd. and 316.5 megabava Mali Photovoltaic Park.The 33 photovoltaic parks of Jaguaretama will cover nearly 5,000 hectares of land in the same name.Umari will consist of seven solar power plants, covering an area of 1267.65 hectares, located between Umari, ICO, and Lavras Da Mangabeira.UNEP pointed out that Koma’s approval was the conditions for the CEARA Environmental Supervision Agency Semace issued a license.

Slovenia Oil Company will invest 17 million euros in Croatian photovoltaic project

Slovenia Energy Group Gasoline Company (PETG) said last Friday (February 18), which plans to invest 17 million euros (19.3 million US dollars) in Croatia, 2022. At 2021, all preparations needed to build Suknovci, Primkovo, and VRBNK photovoltaic power station construction, now this project is ready to build a stage. Gasoline companies submitted to the document of the Lublian Stock Exchange earlier on Friday, the gasoline company’s supervisor believes that the construction of the photovoltaic power station is appropriate and agrees that the Administration will continue to implement the project. The total capacity of the three photovoltaic power plants is 22 megawatts, which will begin to power in 2023. Janez Zlak, Chairman of the Board of Supervisors, said in the document: \”The gasoline company board believes that by investing in Suknovich, Brisco, and Fernick solar power plants, gasoline companies are implementing their strategic objectives, estimated by the end of 2025, The regenerative power generation capacity will reach 160 megawatts. At the end of 2021, the oil group renewable energy power generation capacity reached 68.9 MW. \” During 2021 to 2025, gasoline would invest 35% euros for energy conversion investment. (1 $ \u003d 0.88039 Euro)

African Development Bank approves the financing mechanism of 500 MW solar energy in G5 Saheler region

The African Development Bank Group (AFDB) announced that its board of directors has approved financing mechanisms, supporting Sahel Five Countries (G5) countries (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger) to install 500 MW solar energy. The World Bank will commit to the provision of $ 379.6 million (3341 million euros) of financing and technical assistance in the desert area in the next seven years, and power supply for the Five Group Saheler facilities. African Development Banks said that this fund will be used to achieve utility scale solar power through independent generator and energy storage solutions, and added that about 6.95,000 households will benefit from this project to obtain electricity. Daniel Schroth, Daniel Schroth, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Agent: \”This facility will also support integration of more variable renewable energy in the power system, especially by deploying innovative battery storage. Solutions and Power Grid Investment. \”In October 2021, the Green Climate Fund Council ratified $ 10 million in preferential resources for this facility, which is expected to take advantage of $ 37 million in additional funding from other development financial institutions from other development financial institutions. , Commercial banks and private sector developers, African Development Banks further statements. The approved facility is part of a broader desert power plant, which is taken by African Development Bank to provide 10 gigabit solar power and electricity for approximately 250 million people in 11 Saheler countries in 2030. . ($ 1.0 \u003d 0.88 euros)

Trade barriers – Export-oriented SME PV products are in the crisis and challenges of the sea

01 The business difficulties under trade barriers are well known that China’s photovoltaic industry is huge and is the world’s most important PV product exporter. Changes in tariff policies of all countries, the establishment of domestic trade protection policies, the impact of the export of photovoltaic products in China cannot be underestimated. Taking the photovoltaic commodity exported to the United States as an example, when domestic suppliers thought that the US government announced that the US government announced the global protection measures (201 measures) on February 4. Let us call the time, May 17, 2017, the US government launched a global survey of imported crystal silicon solar cells and components. Furthermore, on January 22, 2018, the United States levied global security tariffs on imported solar panels. Take the United States as an example, the reason, the Trade War is an unable topic. The trade friction between China and the United States directly affects the tariff of import and export commodities. For example, in March 2018, the United States proposed that China’s import commodities were collected from 50 billion to $ 60 billion in new tariffs. In April, a list of approximately 1300 Chinese merchandise is announced, saying that 25% of these products may be levied. On June 18, US President Trump threatens more tariffs for Chinese products worth $ 200 billion. On September 18, the same year, China and the United States announced that the third round of mutual collection tariffs. China’s offensive for the United States also made a corresponding sanctions. However, in many rounds, the global economy has become the largest loser. The photovoltaic industry designed to be exported to the United States has also been hit by a certain degree. On the other hand, the United States is Ren President Trump proposes the \”US First\” concept, pursues isolationism, which will restore the manufacturing industry in the United States. Trump will return to the manufacturing industry as one of its six major jobs, will \”buy American goods, employ American workers\” as its economic strategy principle. Moreover, the Trump government puts forward with China’s \”detachment\” and launches relevant financial and taxation policies, requiring US companies to return to China. Thus all kinds of trade protection, give a hitting of suppliers who want to export the United States. Given the huge native market, and the United States is also trying to develop clean energy. For domestic manufacturers, it should be a good export dumping country. However, due to the above reasons, it is impossible to be a major lack for export-oriented photovoltaic companies, especially small and medium-sized enterprises. What sags in the snow is that in 2021, the price of goods in the whole industry chain has soared, and the freight of the sea has soared. Many SMEs have difficulty operating. Among this trend of this kind of hitting, the export-oriented SMEs need to seek ways. 02 The many possibilities under the trade dilemma are actively broadening a variety of overseas markets, despite many trade barriers, but in a big trend in the global development of clean energy, the author believes that there is no need to excessive the future of export-oriented central enterprises. pessimistic. Let us first look at a group of data, from the export of photovoltaic products in 2021, my country’s PV product exports are approximately $ 23.1 billion, an increase of 44.6% year-on-year; 82.2GW of photovoltaic components is 82.2% year-on-year; PV module exports 198For. 3.0 million US dollars, a year-on-year increase of 44.8%. Traditional European, Japan, Australia and other traditional photovoltaic markets maintain strong demand, Pakistan, Greece and other emerging markets continue to emerge, and the GW market has developed from 11 in 2018 to 20. Wang Bohua, the honorary chairman of the China Poetry Industry Association. A group of data from 2020 is shown that in the distribution of export markets, the top ten overseas markets have mainly Netherlands, Vietnam, Japan, India, Australia, Brazil, etc., the total export amount is about the total export amount 2 / 3 or more. Among them, China’s photovoltaic module exports in the European market in the European market, reaching 29GW, greatly increased by 27%; export Vietnam realized double-growth growth, with a number of exceeding 11GW. From these two groups of data, the market is still huge for exported photovoltaic companies. Although in February this year, new trade barriers have also appeared in India. In a letter submitted to the Minister of Indian New Energy and Renewable Energy, the Indian National Solar Federation provides a strong proof of delaying photovoltaic developers for new crown epidemic, and points out that these photovoltaic projects may face enforcement. Basic tariffs. However, the remaining market is still in a relatively open environment. For many SMEs, actively adjust their export strategy, change their business routes, and broaden new overseas markets, and improve their ability to respond to trade barriers. . In particular, the Western European market and the Southeast Asian market, with the deep way in China, through land transportation, it can also avoid the risk of marine prices. How to continue to open up the US market, despite this, in the face of the huge market, it is easy to give up. Improve the US market, for SMEs, is it a heavens, or still track? Let us return to the timeline of the China-US trade war, seek answers. In 2018, G20, China, the United States, the summit reached a consensus. Conclude the 90-day breakdown agreement. The US will call up to 10% of Chinese products worth $ 200 billion. And a 2020 report, in the trade war process, the trade deficit of the United States and China has once a slightly reduced, but the overall trade deficit has risen 22.8% in 2016 to 2019, the reason behind China is, China lost Multinational corporation orders have not returned to the United States, just turning from third countries. In addition, the trigger of the 2011 winter new crown black swan events caused the US large-scale downtime to stop production, and the manufacturing industry contigs. The US Department of Commerce Data shows that in the first quarter of 2020, US GDP (GDP) fell 5% year-on-year rate, down 0.2 percentage points higher than the initial data, and the largest quarterly decline since the most serious period of the international financial crisis. In summary, although the United States strongly wants to ensure the resumption of local industries, excessive single-sided unilateralism is unable to grow in the trend of the local industry. And for export-oriented small and medium-sized, want to export the United States, need a keenPolitical smell, always pay attention to the development of Sino-US, whether to develop its own business to maximize the development of its business to maximize new risks that may arise in future trade wars.03 Conclusion The high establishment of trade barriers has indeed impact on the operation of export-oriented small and medium-sized photovoltaic enterprises.However, in the global market to a good environment, if companies can adjust their experience strategies, truse, and invest efforts in technology innovation, they must cope with the challenges of the sea.

Transformer main parameters

The main technical data are generally marked on the nameplate of the transformer.

Mainly include: rated capacity, rated voltage and its tap, rated frequency, winding coupling group and rated performance data (impedance voltage, no-load current, no-load loss and total weight of load loss.

A, rated capacity (kVA): rated voltage. Rated current under continuous operation, the capacity can be delivered.

B, rated voltage (kV): the working voltage that the transformer can withstand when operating for a long time. In order to adapt to the needs of changes in grid voltage, transformer high-voltage side are tapped, by adjusting the number of turns of high-voltage winding to adjust the output voltage of the low-voltage side.

C, rated current (A): the transformer in the rated capacity, allowing long-term current through.

D. No-load loss (kW): When the rated voltage at the rated frequency is applied to the terminals of one winding, the active power drawn by the rest of the winding is open circuit. With the core silicon steel sheet performance and manufacturing process, and the applied voltage related.

E, no-load current (%): When the transformer is no-load on the second side at rated voltage, the current passed in the primary winding. Generally expressed as a percentage of the rated current.

F, load loss (kW): the transformer’s secondary winding short-circuit, in the primary winding rated tap position into the rated current, when the transformer power consumption.

G, impedance voltage (%): the transformer’s secondary winding short-circuit, in the primary winding slowly raise the voltage, when the secondary winding short-circuit current is equal to the rated value, when the voltage applied to the primary side. Generally expressed as a percentage of the rated voltage.

H, the number of phases and frequency: the beginning of the three-phase to S, single-phase beginning to D said. China’s national standard frequency f for 50Hz. 60Hz foreign countries (such as the United States).

I, temperature rise and cooling: transformer winding or upper oil temperature and transformer temperature difference between the surrounding environment, known as the winding or upper oil temperature rise. Oil-immersed transformer winding temperature rise limit of 65K, oil surface temperature rise of 55K. cooling methods are also various: oil-immersed self-cooling, forced air cooling, water cooling, tube, sheet type, etc..

J. Insulation level: There are insulation level standards. The insulation level is expressed as follows: the insulation level of transformer with high voltage rated voltage of 35kV and low voltage rated voltage of 10kV is LI200AC85/LI75AC35, where LI200 means that the transformer has high voltage lightning surge withstand voltage of 200kV and frequency withstand voltage of 85kV, low voltage lightning surge withstand voltage of 75kV and frequency withstand voltage of 35kV. withstand voltage of 35kV.